The standard of technological times (norm time) – determined at the end of the traditionally developed technological process. The general definition defines the standard of machining time as the amount of time necessary to carry out specific activities in given organizational and technical conditions, by a defined number of employees. Providing for  the norm of technological times may include all activities carried out by man, technological machine and means of transport. An exception is conceptual (creative) work, for which you can effectively use only a specific schedule with the final date (dead line). The biggest challenge for standardizing working time are technological processes of high time consumption, unique or made to order (eg unit production, repair services).
The standard of technological times is calculated in order to:
- production planning,
- determining the costs of remunerating employees,
- determining the cost of the product.
Calculations of the technological time standard are performed primarily for individual technological operations. It should be assumed that the same activities in different enterprises, with different organizational and technical conditions, take a different amount of time.
Fig. 1 shows the standard of machining times.
The following base conditions were adopted:
- the correct choice of machine tool and technological tooling was made,
- the workpiece meets the requirements (overall dimensions, material),
- correctly selected machining allowances,
- employees have appropriate qualifications,
- work organization is at the right level,
- the service of the technological station is correct.
The norm of time in equations
The time norm can be determined by the equation:
where: t – technology norm time, tpz – preparatory and final time, tj – the unit time.
The contemporary nature of production means that the preparatory and completion time plays an important role in the organization of production. In the case of mass production, its existence was not so important.
where: tj – unit time, tw – execution time, tu – supplementary time.
where: to – service time, tf – time of physiological needs. In the case of supplementary time here it is assumed that it is 12% of execution time tw.
where: tot – technical support (service) time, too – organizational service time.
where: koo coefficient value is accepted from 6% to 9%
where: tf – time of physiological needs, tfn – time of natural needs, tfo – time of rest of the employee.
where: the value of the factor kf is 0.02 which results from 2% of the time tw
To sum up, the analytically determined standard of technological times (standard of working time) for serial production takes the following form:
where k_u – complementary time coefficient, other designations as above.
For mass production the standard of technological times is based on the formula:
The above method is an analytical method that allows for an acceptable estimation of the standard of working time (standard of technological times) for a given technological operation and a comprehensive technological process. The experimental method is also used, which consists in measuring individual activities in a given company at a given workstation during the implementation of various technological tasks.
- Feld M., Podstawy projektowania procesów technologicznych typowych części maszyn, WNT 2000
- Knowledge – dr inż. Jan Berkan (RIP 2018)
- Own notes.
- Staworzyński P., Techniki normowania czasu – www.staworzynski.boostnet.pl