Techniki Wytwarzania i Procesy Technologiczne
sleeve - bushing - technological symbols - proces technologiczny tulei - tuleja

Sleeve – technological process, introduction 4.75/5 (4)

During his studies, then working at F.W.P. VIS S.A. basically, there was no documentation other than paper. The implementation of the CAD program was under way. Today, PLM and PDM systems (Product Lifecycle Management and Product Design Management) enable significant improvement in production management, including synthesis, flow, updating of technological documentation – as one of the elements of the entire system.

The simultaneous functioning of paper and electronic documentation is extremely ineffective, the more the parallel they are. Making changes to paper documentation is not a quick process. This involves a specific procedure in which it is necessary to verify the changes and their approval. This means a time-consuming circulation of documentation. The problem here is changes without any authorization. The integration of both forms is difficult and ineffective. Technological progress, such as CNC machine tools, enforces the use of digital 3D models and thus CAD programs. At one time, CAD systems were replacing drafting boards, and the documentation was still paper.

The document and content management features available in PLM systems allow you to manage technological documents and technical publications in the same product lifecycle management system along with all other product information. The creators of documentation and content have direct access to information about the product during its development, and can work in harmony. It is not possible to make changes outside the system. You can constantly update the product design and documentation in accordance with the changes to reduce time and reduce the cost of preparing documentation, thereby improving the quality and final product.

Didactically, conceptually mastering the preparation of classic 2D technological documentation is still a necessary skill. The form of its generation and management has changed. However, the 2D recording system also has advantages in presenting the necessary information. This is changing and CAD/CAM systems are increasingly offering advanced options to describe surface properties (roughness, geometric dimensional tolerances).

According to the Business Standards Institute:

  • 47% of the non-ISO recognition of the ISO certificate for plants and companies results from poor control over the documentation.
  • About 3-7% of technical data is lost irretrievably every year due to the loss of engineering documentation.

CIMdata reports that 20% of the time engineers and technologists spend looking for the right version of the product documentation.

Technological symbols in technological documentation

Technological documentation similarly to technical documentation uses technical drawing and dedicated technological symbols in order to clearly describe the technological process. Tables 1 to 5 present these types of symbols and related explanations. The tables have been prepared on the basis of the standard already withdrawn: PN-83/M-01152. As part of a simplified technological route, a technological sketch in the instruction card, the use of the following symbols is important.

Table 1. Symbols – designation of supports.

sleeve - bushing - technological symbols

Table 2. Symbols – clamps / clamping forces on the technological drawing.

sleeve - bushing - technological symbols

Table 3. Symbols – fixtures- clamping forces on the technological drawing.

sleeve - bushing - technological symbols

Table 4. Symbols and nature of operation / setting of working surfaces of technological equipment.

sleeve - bushing - technological symbols

Table 5. Symbols of drivers and magnetic table.


sleeve - bushing - technological symbols

Sleeve – technological process

As an example, the didactic design of the part of the sleeve class (fig. 1) was selected for the analysis, purely hypothetical, in which astute observers probably perceive vagueness. The purpose of this choice is to discuss the preparation of the technological process in several variants as much as possible:

  • using classic machines,
  • using CNC machine tools,
  • serial production, forged and cast type blanks,
  • piece production – workpiece project.

The didactic approach in addition to the most classical one allows the best to describe, explain, present a given issue, it allows to get acquainted with the basics. Without learning about them, it is difficult to master the possibilities of development techniques, in this case CAM programs and systems.

sleeve - bushing - technological symbols

Fig.1. Didactic project of part of the sleeve class.

When analyzing the technological design of the sleeve shown in figure 1, it is necessary and useful to use the information contained in:

  • Class parts sleeves and discs – general technological processes.

In the above-mentioned design of the part of the class, the sleeve as the basic material was selected steel 15H – alloy steel construction for carburizing.

As part of discussing the example project of the technological process, the technological process will be analyzed and developed for:

  • series production, forgings material, technological process for conventional and CNC machine tools;
  • piece production.

General technological process sleeve class parts on the basis of conventional machine tools
  • Technological process of sleeve, part 1
  • Technological process of sleeve, part 2
  • Technological process of sleeve, part 3
  • Technological process of sleeve, part 4 – drilling
  • Technological process of sleeve, part 5 – boring
  • Technological process of sleeve, part 6 – grinding

About author


Born 1973. In 1993, I graduated from Technical Secondary School No. 1. In 1998, the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (now Faculty of Production Engineering) - Warsaw University of Technology. 1997-2000 cutting tools manufacturer at VIS Precise Products Factory S.A. 2004. Unfortunately, this company no longer exists. PhD in gear technology. Production technologies and technological processes are my passion.

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